Cell apoptosis, a kind of programmed cell death actively performed by cells, is one of the basic characteristics of cells. Apoptosis maintains the stability of the internal environment and plays an important role during embryonic development and tissue repair. In normal cells, the distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) is distributed along the inner leaflet of the cell membrane bilayer. In the early stages of apoptosis, the phosphatidylserine (PS) in the cell membrane turns from the inside of the lipid membrane to the outer leaflet – where it acts as an ‘eat me’ signal for phagocytes.
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