Due to the rapidly growing number of people who are affected and the slow and terrible process of the disease, AD places a large strain on both social welfare and the healthcare system. The global economic cost of caring for patients with AD is expected to increase to $2 trillion by 2030.
The E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, APOE4, is associated with atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mutation and abnormal expression of APP gene, which produces the prerequisite protein for amyloid beta (Aβ) protein, is one of the originating causes of AD. Multiple APP gene mutation sites have been identified in individuals diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), among which the human APP695 isoform - with double mutation: K670N, M671L - is the leading cause of the FAD study in Swedish families.
The following knockout mice and humanized mouse models can be used for cardiovascular disease (CVD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) research:
|Mouse Model||Role in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) or Alzheimer's Disease (AD)|
|APOE Knockout Mice||Lacking APOE protein, these mouse models exhibit five times the normal serum plasma cholesterol and spontaneous atherosclerotic lesions.|
|APPSWE Humanized Mice||Expresses human APPSWE; exhibits an increased risk of atherosclerosis compared to wild type mice; develops significant amyloid plaques and displays memory deficits. Useful for the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD).|